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Education for Ethnic Minorities In China(II)
Special measures adopted in developing developing EFEM in China

Boarding schools for primary and middle school ethnic students have been built. The majority of ethnic population inhabit far remote mountainous regions and pastoral areas. Their households are scattered and inaccessible, which makes going to school a great difficulty. To solve this problem, the Chinese government early in the beginning of the liberation, built various convenient primary schools, like herdsmen primary school, tent primary school, Kang end schools, and horseback schools or adopted mobile forms to offer teaching with the purpose of developing basic education for ethnic children. Starting in late 1950's, ethnic regions continuously built a number of boarding schools according to their own region's special conditions and actual situation. Governments at all levels also appropriated ear-marked fund to cover th costs relating to students' study and daily living, teachers' salaries improvement of school-running conditions and the formulation of management methods. In 1990's boarding schools for ethic students have been further developed. At present, 6000 boarding schools or classes for ethnic primary or middle students have been built in 18 provinces or autonomous regions, with more than one million students in total. Building boarding schools for primary and secondary education in ethic regions has the advantages for concentrated administration and organization of teaching work, for improving educational and teaching quality, for the concentrated utilization of human, financial and material resources to improve school-running condition. It is also favorable for expanding students' visions and promoting their all-round development. The development of boarding schools of this kind has greatly increased the enrollment and retaining rate, which has speeded up the popularization of primary and secondary education for ethnic students in mountainous and pastoral areas.

Classes and preparatory classes for ethnic students are run in schools at all levels. In order to train more outstanding cadres and all kind of qualified personnel and to speed up th development and construction in ethnic regions, in addition to the establishment of schools of all levels and all categories, the country has also set up many classes and preparatory classes. The classes for ethnic students have adopted the methods of the targeted enrollment, specialized training and directional assignment, specialized training and directional assignment. Ethnic students whose literacy level is not up to the standard will be enrolled first in preparatory classes to receive one or two years' up-grading trainging. After passing the qualifying examinations, these students will be transferred to the regular classes. Special curriculum and textbooks have been designed according to the characteristics of ethnic classes. Their living habits, religious beliefs, ritual festivals are specially respected and well observed. A scientific management system with the characteristics of ethnic minorities has been gradually formulated regarding enrollment, teaching, management and assignment. At present, over 100 institutions of higher learning in the entire country run classes for ethnic students or preparatory classes, with the attendance of about 9000 students. There are 86 ethnic classes and preparatory classes in inland secondary schools with more than 10,000 students in total. Ethnic classes and preparatory classes of all levels and all categories have become an important base and cradle for training personnel of ethnic background.

Creating institutions of higher learning for ethnic minorities is an important measure for training cadres and personnel with special skills. The country has set up 12 universities for ethnic minorities in 11 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. These universities only enroll students of ethnic background and have offered special skills. the country has set up 12 universities for ethnic minorities in 11 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. These universities only enroll students of ethnic background and have offered special disciplines and subjects according to the actuality and needs of ethnic regions. They also provide cadres' training and preparatory classes. They adopt special teaching and administrative approaches and have formed a special training module. In 1989, in all these universities, there are 39332 students and 4897 teaching staff. A large number of qualified personnel with various specialized skills have been trained. They have played an important role for speeding up the economic development and educational cause in ethnic regions.


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