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Chronicle of Major Educational Policies of China (1997-1999)III
Educational Milestones 1999
2001-12-25
Li Haisheng
 

On January 4, the Ministry of Education released a press communiqué, announcing that the nine-year compulsory education and the elimination of illiteracy among young and mid-aged people were basically achieved in Liaoning, Jilin and Fujian.

 On January 11, the Ministry of Education convened the Education Workshop 1999, which reviewed the educational tasks fulfilled in 1998, exchanged the experience accumulated by local authorities in fulfilling their tasks, analyzed and studied the tasks as well as problems that emerged in current educational development and laid down the key tasks to be achieved by the education line in 1999.

 On January 13, the logistics of 8 colleges and universities in Shanghai, including Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai Drama Institute, Shanghai Institute of Technology and Shanghai Normal University, were formally separated from the colleges and universities, taking a major step in the way towards independent logistics operation.

 On January 23, the Common College and University Evaluation Expert Committee was set up, with the aim of strengthening and improving the state’s macro administration and supervision over administrative departments of education as well as colleges and universities, propelling administrative departments of education at various levels to lay stress on and show supports for the educational process in colleges and universities, assisting colleges and universities in gradually establishing and ameliorating their self-development and self-restriction mechanisms, and further improving the quality and efficiency of higher education.

 On January 26, the Ministry of Education decided to delegate the decision-making power of examining and approving national or cross-regional (provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) teaching contests for primary and middle school students to departments of education in provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government from 1999.

 On January 26, Hong Kong SAR Government announced its plans of reforming the Administrative Office of Education, which, according to the reform plans, would establish partnership with schools instead of imposing overall supervision over them, with the view to pressing ahead with the education of high quality in conjunction with schools. Its major responsibilities lie in ensuring the smooth implementation of various educational policies and improving the overall quality of school education.

 On February 24, the Ministry of Education formally promulgated the Action Plans 21 for Rejuvenation of Education adopted by the 2nd workshop of the State Science and Technology and Education Directorate on October 28 of 1998. As a blueprint for cross-century educational reform and development in China, the Plans made clear the objectives of educational development in China from 2000 to 2010, which includes: implement cross-century quality education project; carry out the cross-century teacher training project; put into effect the project aimed at cultivating high-quality talents with creativity; speed up the development of Project 211; put into place the modern remote education; implement the project aimed at utilizing new and high technologies developed by colleges and universities for production; promote the steady development of higher education; press forward with adult and vocational education; deepen reforms in the school running; mobilize the enthusiasm of social partners for running schools; hold high the Great Banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, adhere to socialist guidelines for running schools, enhance the Party construction in schools and raise the ideological and political awareness of teachers and students in schools.

 On February 24, the hundred-mark system was replaced by a new system in Jiangxi, which was designed to appraise students’ academic performance by taking into account their grades, strong points as well as remarks from their teachers, in all primary schools in Jiangxi, in the hope of pressing forward with the nationwide realization of quality education.

 On March 1, the Ministry of Education decided to collect from the public test questions for the integrated subject, Chinese, mathematics and English of the national college entrance examination, with the view to deepening the reform in contents of the examination, enhancing its scientific and democratic operation and creating favorable conditions for cultivating creative talents.

 On March 2, the Workshop on Ideological and Political Undertaking in Colleges and Universities was held, which reviewed the ideological and political undertaking achieved in 1998, communicated the experience of learning Deng Xiaoping Theory as well as enhancing the ideological and political development, and studied on and laid down the tasks to be fulfilled in 1999.

 On March 15, the Chinese Language, Culture and Friendship Award was set up by the Ministry of Education with the aim of commending foreign friends who registered remarkable achievements in Chinese education, Sinology research as well as dissemination of Chinese language and culture. The award would be granted in every 3 years by the Ministry of Education or authorized diplomatic institutions of China stationed abroad.

 Breakthroughs were registered in reforming the staffing system in colleges and universities. Teachers publicly engaged by Tsinghua University and Beijing University got involved in fair and open competition for posts set up in accordance with students’ demands. Only those selected on the competitive basis were entitled to the said posts and the associated allowance. The allowance varied according to teachers’ posts, responsibilities and contributions.

 On April 2, the first group of professors engaged by the Yangtze River Scholar Award Plan as well as winners for the Yangtze River Scholar Achievement   Award were announced. The first group of professors totaling 73 were engaged by 40 colleges and universities. Academician Cheng Zhu of Shanghai Second University of Medical Science, along with Xia Jiahui of Hunan University of Medical Science, won the 1st prize of Yangtze River Scholar Achievement Award.

 On April 4, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Strengthening Quality and Safety Management of Construction Projects in Schools and Starting Quality and Safety Inspection on the Projects, coming up with the determination to launch a massive quality and safety inspection of construction projects conducted in various schools as well as educational facilities that had been put into services.

 On April 27, the Ministry of Education issued the Guiding Suggestions on Reforming Junior Middle School Graduation and Entrance Examinations, pointing out that the point of reforming junior middle school graduation and entrance examinations centered upon reforming the contents of the examinations as well as improving the administration in conformity with the reforms.

 On May 6, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Practice of Colleges and Universities to Offer Undergraduate and Secondary Programs through Offering Study Home or Evening School Programs, coming up with regulations on qualifications, conditions, scope of programs and archiving procedures needed to be carried out or followed by the above-mentioned institutions

 On May 8, college teachers and students in Beijing, Chengdu, Shanghai and Guangzhou held mass rallies and demonstrations, lodging a strong protest with NATO led by America against its atrocities of launching missile attacks against Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia.

 On May 13, the Ministry of Education, along with the Ministry of Public Security, relegated the decision-making power of examining and approving overseas summer and winter camp activities to education departments of provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the central government, which, apart from exercising the decision-making power, assumes the responsibility for reporting the said activities to the Department of International Cooperation and Exchange under the Ministry of Education and the Entry and Exit Administration under the Ministry of Public Security for archiving.

 On May 21, the Ministry of Education issued the Regulations of China Overseas Study Fund Committee, stating in definite terms the committee’s purpose, responsibilities, setup as well as operation procedures.

 The State Physical Culture and Sports Administration, in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, issued the Administrative Measures on Children Sports Schools, laying down regulations on aspects of their conditions, enrollment, school roll management, ideological and cultural education, sports training, contests, as well as qualifications of tenure teachers and coaches.

 On June 10, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Opening School Venues to Students in Vacations and Statutory Holidays, stipulating that, starting from the summer vacation of 1999, sports venues and facilities of all schools should be open to students in winter and summer vacations and in statutory holidays.

 On June 14, the Ministry of Education issued the Plans for Developing Key Humanities Research Bases in Common Colleges and Universities, which points out that, acting in the spirit of the 15th National Congress of the CPC, the Plans for Developing Key Humanities Research Bases in Common Colleges and Universities was brought forward, with the aim of fulfilling the tasks of enhancing the development of science research bases as prescribed in the Action Plans 21 for Rejuvenation of Education and Essentials of Humanities Research in Common Colleges and Universities in the Ninth Five-Year Plan, and consequently pressing ahead with the development of humanities research in colleges and universities as well as the reform of research systems.

 On June 17, the Ministry of Education, in conjunction with the Ministry of Public Security and the State Industrial and Commercial Administration, promulgated the Regulations on Intermediary Services of Self-Supported Overseas Study, with the purpose of strengthening the administration of intermediary services of self-supported overseas study.

 On June 17, the General Office of the State Council disseminated the Interim Regulations on Granting Loans to Students in Need formulated by the People’s Bank of China and other departments, determining to push forward the trial implementation of granting loans to students in need in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Wuhan, Shenyang, Xi'an, Nanjing and other cities before prevailing it on a national scale when conditions permit.

 From June 15 to 18, the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council jointly convened the 3rd National Education Workshop since the policy of reform and opening China to the outside world was put into effect, and promulgated on the workshop the Decisions on Deepening the Educational Reform and Propelling the Overall Development of Quality Education by the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council. The workshop called on the Communist Party and Chinese people of all nationalities to proceed from the need of enhancing the quality and innovation of the Chinese nation, deepening the educational reform, pressing ahead with the quality education, breathing new air into educational undertakings, implementing the strategy of rejuvenating the nation through science and education, and making great strides along the path towards achieving the grand objectives of socialist development determined in the 15th National Congress of the CPC. Proceeding from the strategic point of international political and economic perspective, the Decisions and the workshop, with its mind set to bring into reality the prosperous development of socialism in China as well as the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, entrusted the quality education with new tasks reflective of needs of modern times and came up with definite objectives and tasks for the initiative of deepening educational reform and advancing the overall development of quality education. On June 22, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Studying and Acting in the Spirit of the National Education Workshop and Decisions on Deepening the Educational Reform and Propelling the Overall Development of Quality Education by the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council.

 On June 27, the General Office of the State Council transmitted the Suggestions on Promoting the Laborer Preparation System and Improving the Quality of Laborers by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and Other Departments, pointing out that, it was of necessity to put into place the laborer preparation system to bring an end to the unfavorable circumstances where large numbers of laborers lacked professional skills proved to be necessary for their posts. According to the Suggestions, all laborers should, prior to their employment, go through 1 to 3 years of vocational education or training.

 On July 2, the Ministry of Science and Technology, along with the Propaganda Department of the CCCPC, the Ministry of Education and China Science and Technology Association, determined to name 100 National Bases for Youth Science and Technology Education from the last quarter of 1999.

 On July 5, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Exercise of Qigong in Schools.

 The Plan for National Student Fitness and Health Monitor Network was put into trial implementation, with the aim of setting up the National Student Fitness and Health Monitor Network linked up with the massive survey and research on fitness and health of students that was conducted once every 5 years, and consequently enabling frequent supervision over their fitness and health. 

 On July 13, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Conforming to Standards to Achieve Nine-Year Compulsory Education and Literacy Program with Perfection, which, apart from making it clear that nine-year compulsory education and literacy programs among young and mid-aged people stood at the forefront of forging ahead the quality education, called on local governments at various levels to set great store by the two tasks, bringing them into fulfillment by 2000 and registering more achievements on that basis.

 On July 13, the Ministry of Education, in conjunction with the State Ethical Affairs Commission, circulated the Notice on Launching Education on Unity of Nationalities in Primary and Middle Schools in China, which called for offering the course of General Knowledge of Nationalities in primary schools and course of General Knowledge of Policies towards Nationalities in junior middle schools in the light of cognitive abilities of students at different ages. In addition, junior middle schools should dedicate efforts to combining education on unity of nationalities with varied and colorful extracurricular activities, which included performance of songs and dances, oratorical contests on nationalities, painting contests as well as story-telling sessions or lectures on unity of nationalities in China.   

 On July 15, the Ministry of Education issued the Administrative Measures on Payment of Personnel Seeking Self-Supported Overseas Study for Their Higher Education Received in China.

 On July 17, the Academic Degree Office under the State Council, together with the Ministry of Education, established the Pedagogy Master Program Supervision Committee, whose major responsibilities are: monitoring and coordinating pedagogy master programs in China, supervising the quality of the programs, pooling a team of teachers for elementary education, and cultivating a high-profile team of administrative officials. The members of the committee are selected and engaged jointly by the Academic Degree Office and the Ministry of Education.

 On July 19, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Accelerating the Development of Small-and Medium-Sized Businesses Run by Schools to Forge Ahead the Quality Education, pointing out that, great efforts should be channeled into galvanizing the growth of school-run businesses to forge ahead the overall development of quality education and bring into accomplishment the grand objective of cultivating a new generation needed by the modernization drive in the 21st century. School-run businesses should, out of necessity, enhance their awareness of service education, bringing about as a consequence favorable conditions for the advancement of quality education.

 On July 21, the Provisional Administrative Measures on Accepting Foreign Students by Primary and Middle Schools was brought into practice. On August 5, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Carrying out the Provisional Administrative Measures on Accepting Foreign Students by Primary and Middle Schools, making it clear that strict examinations should be conducted over the applications of primary and middle schools run by social sectors and Sino-foreign co-sponsored high schools for accepting foreign students. Foreign students learning in primary and middle schools in China should be referred to as “foreign students” or “students of foreign origin”. In addition, primary and middle schools entitled to accepting foreign students should abide by relevant regulations and rules.

 On July 24, the Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Government signed an agreement on jointly reestablishing University of Science and Technologies of China into a university with a celebrated reputation in the world.

 On July 26, the General Office of the Ministry of Education issued the Summary of the Forum on Acting in Spirit of the National Education Workshop and Deepening the Reform of National College Entrance Examination. The State Development and Planning Commission, together with the Ministry of Education, circulated the Notice on Checking Arbitrary Collection of Fees from Graduates of Common Colleges and Universities, calling for curbing the arbitrary collection from graduates seeking employment and paving the way for employment of graduates of common colleges and universities as a consequence.

 On August 4, the Ministry of Education issued the Guiding Outlines for Teaching of Symphony Appreciation and Analysis in Colleges and Universities (Trial), which requires that, all colleges and universities, taking into account their specific conditions, should come up with well-considered plans for offering the course, select teaching materials compiled in accordance with the Guiding Outlines, solve problems posed by lack of teachers and instruments, and take important steps towards the sound and in-depth development of aesthetic education in colleges and universities.

 On August 4, the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Personnel and 4 PLA Headquarters jointly circulated the Notice on Experiments of Selecting and Cultivating Military Officers in Common Colleges and Universities.

 On August 12, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Forging Ahead the Development of High School Education, pointing out that current educational resources should be leveraged to push forward the development of high school education. All local authorities, with the aim of galvanizing social sectors into running high schools, should bring about favorable conditions for them through adopting preferential policies, including royalty-free land use, exemption from matching funds as well as full use of available facilities and buildings. Additionally, local authorities should step up their administration and supervision over schools run by non-governmental sectors.

 On August 12, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Providing Primary and Middle Schools with Adequate Educational Instruments, making it clear that great efforts devoted to enhancing the management of educational instruments in primary and middle schools and to forging ahead the reform and development in that regard were proved necessary for fostering a new generation boasting creativity and applied skills needed in the 21st century.

 On August 13, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Enhancing Psychological Education in Primary and Middle Schools, calling on heads of departments of education at various levels, schoolmasters and parents to gain an acute awareness of the significance of enhancing students’ psychological education, and adopt a positive and conscientious attitude towards the education.

 On August 14, the National Secondary Vocational Education Supervision Committee was established, with the view to deepening the reform of vocational education, pressing ahead with the quality education, and improving the quality and efficiency of vocational education.

 On August 17, the Ministry of Education issued the National Regulations of Operation for Granting Loans to Students in Need (Trial), deciding to initiate the experiments first in colleges and universities affiliated to central ministries in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Wuhan, Shenyang, Xi'an and Nanjing.

 The Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Bringing up a Team of Teachers for Colleges and Universities in New Times, a guiding document aimed at carrying out the spirit of the National Education Workshop as well as that of Action Plans 21 for Rejuvenation of Education and consequently bringing up a high-profile pool of teachers for colleges and universities.

 On August 20, the Central Committee of the CPC, in conjunction with the State Council, promulgated the Decisions on Enhancing Technical Innovation, Developing High Technologies and Translating Them into Productive Forces, pointing out that, colleges and universities, backed up by their advantages in human resources, technologies and information, should galvanize teachers and technical agents to get involved in commercializing and industrializing scientific and technological achievements in high-tech development zones. Efforts should be channeled into developing high-tech parks on campus of colleges and universities, cultivating a large number of high-tech businesses and corporations that maintain sharp competitive edge in the market by perfectly integrating knowledge and intelligence, and ultimately bringing about a closer integration of production, teaching and research.

 On August 20, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Enhancing Educational Supervision and Evaluation, bringing forward guiding suggestions on the significance of enhancing educational supervision and evaluation, its nature, the responsibilities of agencies in charge, as well as means of strengthening the leadership over the educational supervision and evaluation and bringing into full play the potential of educational supervision as a result.

 On August 23, the Party Committee of the Ministry of Education circulated a notice, calling on colleges and universities to launch a campaign against Falungong cult, raise the ideological and political awareness of teachers and students and consequently pave the way for maintaining normal and stable operation of their organizations.

 On September 4, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Developing Pilot Vocational and Technical Schools, calling for forging ahead the reform and development of secondary vocational education.

 On September 6, the Ministry of Education issued its suggestions on adjusting the course of political theories of the higher education diploma examination and definite actions taken in that regard. According to the suggestions, educational institutions qualified for offering higher education diploma examinations should offer courses of Fundamentals of Marxism Philosophy, Fundamentals of Marxism Plutonomy and Essentials of Deng Xiaoping Theory instead of former courses of Plutonomy, Philosophy and Chinese Revolutionary History.

 On September 9, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Readjusting the Distribution of Secondary Vocational Schools, making the determination to channel 2 to 3 years of efforts into bringing about a reasonable distribution of 21st century-oriented secondary vocational schools which, on the strength of a wide variety of programs as well as high educational quality and overall efficiency, efficiently meets the needs of socialist market economy and the modernization initiative.

 On September 14, the Regulations on on-the-job Education of Primary and Middle School Teachers was promulgated on a national workshop on the on-the-job education of teachers and training of principals of primary and middle schools convened in Shanghai. The Regulations set forth concrete stipulations on principles followed in the on-the-job education of primary and middle school teachers, the contents and categories of the education, necessary conditions, the examination of results yielded by the education as well as issues relating to rewards and penalties for teachers.

 On September 14, the Ministry of Education issued the Regulations on Undergraduate Programs in Colleges and Universities promulgated in 1999. The Regulations, besides bringing forward regulations on principles, conditions, procedures as well as limits of authority for offering undergraduate programs by colleges and universities, prescribed on the authentication of programs not covered in the catalogue, establishment of appraisal agencies as well as examination and supervision of the process.

 On September 15, the Ministry of Education issued the Suggestions on Deepening the Ongoing Reform of the Staffing System in Colleges and Universities, making it clear that, colleges and universities, by adopting a positive and pioneering attitude, should take full advantage of opportunities available to accelerate the reform of their staffing practice, channeling great efforts as a consequence into forging ahead the reform of their internal administrative systems.  

 On September 24, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Improving the Educational Process in Colleges and Universities, calling on authorities concerned to adopt measures necessary for maintaining a stable and normal educational process in colleges and universities, pressing forward with the quality education and further enhancing the educational quality after colleges and universities realized the enrollment expansion.

 On September 28, awards were given to winners of the 2nd Excellent Educational and Scientific Achievements Grants, among which, 27 grabbed the 1st prize and 161 seized the 2nd prize. In addition, award-winning achievements scored by ministries and commissions were examined and the discipline of military education of national defense was formally set up.

 On October 8, the Ministry of Education circulated the Notice on Standardizing Employment of Graduates and Maintaining a Normal Order of Education in Colleges and Universities, setting forth well-defined regulations that should be followed by companies and organizations when launching their campus recruitment programs.

 On October 15, the 13th Annual Conference of Asian Open University Consortium was held in Beijing. While attending the conference, Vice Premier Li Lanqing pointed out that remote learning would play a greater role in forging ahead the development of higher education in China as well as enhancing the overall quality of the Chinese nation. 

 On October 19, the 3rd Asian Forum on Literacy Program jointly sponsored by the National Commission of the PRC for UNESCO, the UNESCO and International Research Institute on Literacy Program was held in China.

 On October 23, the Ministry of Education brought forward the Suggestions on Promoting the Establishment of Service Systems for Self-Taught Examinations in Rural Areas, calling for further improvement of the service system for self-taught examinations in counties and towns.

 On October 28, the Ministry of Personnel, in conjunction with the State Development and Planning Commission and the Ministry of Education, issued the Notice on Transmitting to Local Authorities the Special Quotas for Making Qualified Non-Government-Paid Teachers Become Government-Paid Teachers from 1999 to 2000, assigning special quotas for 250,000 eligible non-government-paid teachers to become government-paid teachers, which conveys an strong message revealing that the strategic objective of solving the problem of non-government-paid teachers by the end of the 20th century set by the Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council would be achieved on schedule.

 On November 1, the Law of Preventing Minors from Committing Crimes of the People’s Republic of China was put in force. The Law brought forward regulations on education aimed at preventing minors from committing crimes, precaution against minors’ misconducts, rectification of minors’ serious misconducts, minors’ self-precaution against committing crimes, prevention against recidivism of minors who committed crimes as well as minors’ legal responsibilities.

 On November 1, the Law of Preventing Minors from Committing Crimes of the People’s Republic of China was put in force. The Ministry of Education circulated a notice, calling on administrative departments of education at various levels as well as incumbent schools to observe the stipulations of the Law.

 On November 1, the Workshop on Enrollment of Common Colleges and Universities in China was held in Tianjin, which summed up the achievements as well as experience in admission by common colleges and universities in 1997 as well as those in pushing forward the reform of national college entrance examination. In 1999, common colleges and universities, with a set admission plan of 1.537 million, actually enrolled 1.57 million students, an increase by 48.1% over last year, making 1999 the year with the largest enrollment as well as the biggest increase in enrollment since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The workshop additionally called for pressing ahead with the reform in subjects, contents and forms of the national college entrance examination as well as the reform in the remote enrollment adopted by colleges and universities.

 On November 1, the National Workshop on Logistics Outsourcing of Colleges and Universities was held in Shanghai, which, setting forth the tasks to be fulfilled in logistics outsourcing, called for achieving the objectives set for the logistics outsourcing of colleges and universities in 3 years and pushing forward as a consequence the reform and development of higher education. While attending the workshop, Vice Premier Li Lanqing iterated that carrying out logistics outsourcing lies in ushering in dramatic changes in the way by which colleges and universities are operated in China. Proceeding from the perspective of changing the operation pattern of colleges and universities, enhancing their operation efficiency and ultimately pushing them on the track of healthy development, great attention should be attached to the reform. In addition, a keen awareness should be gained that it was of necessity to push forward the logistics outsourcing as there are no way out if no reform in that regard is put into place.

 On November 8, the Ministry of Education and Zhejiang Provincial Government jointly empowered Zhejiang University. Apart from the fund of RMB 400 million yuan from central and provincial treasury pools, the two parties mentioned above would respectively offer the university RMB 300 million yuan.

 On November 14, the Ministry of Education, the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense and the Heilongjiang Provincial Government made the decision to appropriate RMB 300 million, 300 million and 400 million yuan respectively, a total investment of RMB 1 billion yuan, to Harbin Institute of Technology from 1999 to 2001. In addition, the Ministry of Education would grant the institute preferential treatment when conditions permit during the institute’s involvement in projects under the Action Plans 21 for Rejuvenation of Education.

 On November 25, the Ministry of Education convened the National Workshop on Cultivation of Postgraduates, the first national workshop ever convened by the ministry with the aim of conducting in-depth studies of the reform in cultivation of postgraduates to enhance the overall quality of postgraduate education. The workshop, apart from deliberating the reform of postgraduate cultivation in new times, sought opinions of attendants on the Suggestions on Strengthening and Improving Cultivation of Postgraduates and on other relevant documents, and studied means of establishing and improving systems to ensure the quality of degree and postgraduate education.

 On November 30, Guangdong defined the “3+X”formula for the national college entrance examination to be held next year. According to relevant decisions, 5 new subjects including the integrated subject, fine arts, music, PE and English reexamination would be added onto the current package composed of subjects of physics, chemistry, biology, history, politics and geography.  

 The Ministry of Education transmitted the Suggestions on Enhancing Educational Supervision and Evaluation to local authorities.

 On December 4, the Ministry of Education convened the Symposium on Education of Information Technologies in Primary and Middle Schools, deciding to take steps to offer a compulsive course of information technologies in primary and middle schools around China from 2001.

 From December 4 to 6, the National Workshop on Establishment of Training Bases for Teachers of Vocational Education was convened in Tianjin, deciding to establish 20 national training bases for teachers of vocational education.

 On December 6, the Education Workshop 2000 was convened by the Ministry of Education, which pointed out that the core task to be fulfilled in 2000 was to act in the spirit of the National Education Workshop and speed up the educational reform and development, definitive tasks set out in the workshop are read as follows: enhancing the moral education among students; achieving the objectives set for compulsory education and literacy programs; soaring the concurrent development of various educational programs and registering further improvement in enrollment; deepening the reform of educational system; pushing forward the modernization process of education.

 On December 7, the 1st National Workshop on Legal Operation of Education was held in Beijing, which, apart from reviewing and summing up the experience accumulated in pushing forward the legal operation of education, analyzed the achievements as well as problems existing in the process and brought forward on that basis the objective of brining educational management and development under a legal system in 2005 or later.

 On December 9, the National Workshop on Higher Education Enrollment was convened in Wuhan, which, estimating that the total number of students enrolled by various colleges and universities would get on a trend of increase in 3 years to come, decided that 3 million students would be enrolled by various colleges and universities across China in the year of 2000. In addition, the decision-making power of making enrollment plans for junior college education was delegated to all provinces, empowering provincial governments as a result in arena of higher education development.

 On December 10, the 2nd National Workshop on Foreign-Oriented Chinese Education was held, which defined the major tasks to be fulfilled in foreign-oriented Chinese education in future.

 On December 10, the Workshop on Examination and Evaluation of Pervasive Education in 2000 was convened, conveying a strong message indicating that China have virtually lived up to its commitments made at the World Conference on Pervasive Education in 1990.

 On December 14, the National Workshop on Spoken and Written Language in Schools was convened in Beijing, the 1st national workshop specially convened for setting tasks for standardizing spoken and written language in schools.

 On December 17, some universities based in Beijing, Shanghai and Anhui Province piloted the spring enrollment. Upon the approval of the Ministry of Education, 35 colleges and universities based in Beijing, Shanghai and Anhui Province practiced the spring enrollment, planning to offer seats to 8,286 new students, among which, colleges and universities in Beijing, Shanghai and Anhui planned to enroll respectively 1,755, 860 and 5,671 new students. The same policies and regulations for the national general enrollment would be followed in the spring enrollment. In addition, enrolled students in colleges and universities, common high schools, secondary vocational schools and other students with credentials acknowledged by the state are prohibited from applying for the college entrance examination held in spring.

 On December 24, the report regarding the implementation of the Compulsory Education Law of the PRC brought forward by the Law Enforcement Examination Team under the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress pointed to the shortage of funds for compulsory education. According to the report, the phenomenon of delaying salary payment to teachers exists in two thirds of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in China, and the dropout rate in junior middle schools in rural areas, which was 4% to 10% in 1998, is too high.


Related:
  • Chronicle of Major Educational Policies of China (1997-1999)I
  • Chronicle of Major Educational Policies of China (1997-1999)II
  • Chronicle of Major Educational Policies of China (1997-1999)IV


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