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Physical Education In China(II)
2001-01-01
PE in China takes forms of class teaching, extra-curriculum activity, after-school training and sports competitions, hiking, traveling and others, of which class teaching is the basic.
PE course is the main form of PE in educational institutions of different types and at different levels. It is a compulsory course from primary school to the second year of undergraduate program in institutions of higher learning with 2 or 3 class hours per week £¨2 in institutions of higher learning£©£® Some schools even have PE class every day. Starting from the third year in institutions of higher learning, PE course is offered selectively. In schools with PE course as compulsory, students must attend the class. If a student fails to do so for one-third of the total class hours in one semester, her ill not be given final scores for this course, and not be regarded as reaching the National Standards for PE Qualification of Students. On graduation, he can only receive learning certificate, which will not qualify him for education of higher lveel£®In recent years, PE course has been listed as one for test of entrance to senior secondary schools.
Since 1954, PE course syllabi were compiled and issued successively for educational institutions at different levels. In order to meet the needs of educational reform and development, since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the syllabi have undergone revision and re-compilation for several times. The current syllabi are for use nationwide. Taking the philosophy of facing to all students as the guide, and individual development as the final objective, the syllabi set "three basic tasks"£º first to pass on to students basic PE knowledge and skills£» second to train students' body£» and third to conduct ideology and moral education for students. They define the teaching contents of PE as including basic PE and health education knowledge and sports events such as track and field, gymnastics, games, ball games, artistic gymnastics and dances, training games to develop student body and traditional sports events of national minorities. The structure of the syllabi consists of both unified teaching contents and selective ones compiled based on local situation. Events such as swimming and skating are listed as selective because of their dependence on location and climate. In the PE syllabi for 9-year compulsory education, the proportion of unified and selective contents is 70£¥ and 30£¥, while in that of senior secondary schools, the proportion is half-and-half. The PE syllabi are the basis for teaching materials compilation, class teaching, teaching management and quality evaluation. Based on PE syllabi in educational institutions at all levels, Ministry of Education has organized compilation of national teaching materials, and education administrative departments at all local levels have also compiled teaching materials relevant to local conditions for regional use. After approval by the National Examination and Approval Committee for Teaching Materials, several sets of teaching materials are open for choice.

PE course in educational institutions is generally divided into theory and activity classes, with the latter as the main form. In light of teaching tasks and students' conditions, institutions of higher learning and secondary specialized schools open respectively general PE course, courses of particular events, promotion and healthcare £» primary and secondary schools open chiefly general PE course, while some senior secondary schools also open course of particular events on a trial basis. The course in higher grades of primary schools conducts teaching in unisex groups and groups based on health conditions, and pays special attention to activities in small groups in the teaching process, so as to cultivate students' interpersonal relationship, and promote their enthusiastic, initiative and creative learning.

PE course in educational institutions emphasizes on combination of PE with health education. It focuses on PE awareness and fostering of sports' habits in physical exercises. Through passing on of knowledge and PE skills, and physical exercises, it also pays attention to generating students' interest in sports, developing their personality and promoting their over-all development in terms of both body and psychology, so as to lay a basis for life-long physical training. PE courses also pay attention to students' cultivation of sanitation habits and health care awareness£® Primary and secondary schools provide one class hour of health education every two weeks. Institutions of higher learning offer health education as selective course or lectures as requested. Efforts are made to prevention of school common diseases, such as short-sightedness, trachoma, decayed tooth, malnutrition, anemia, and a document of Program for Comprehensive Prevention and Treatment of Common Diseases among Students was issue as a result.

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