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Physical Education In China(I)
The Chinese Government pays great attention to physical education£¨PE£© and students, health. On August 6th, 1951,the Councial of Government Affairs issued "Decision on Improving Students' Health in Educational Institutions at all levels". It points out that improvement of students' health bears great significance to guaranteeing students, success in learning and to fostering a modern generation of youths with a robust body. The Education Law of the People's Republic of China defines the principal guideline for education as "Education should serve the construction of the socialist modernization, should link with productive labor work, and should cultivate builders and successors of the socialist undertakings in an all-rounded development in morality, intellect and body". In also makes clear that PE forms an integral part of students' education, that educational administration and institutions at all levels should regard PE as a priority of their work, and take it and students, health as an item for their performance assessment£® The central education administration has also stipulated some relative rules and regulations. In 1990,the State Council issued the document of "Operational Rules on PE in Educational Institutions", which defines its basic task as "to promote development of students' physical and psychological health, and improve their physique£» to help students acquire basic PE knowledge and cultivate capabilities and habits in physical exercises£»to upgrade students' skills in sports and to train reserve sports talents for the country£» to carry out moral education and help students develop sense of discipline and spirits of courage, bravery and progress-making". Another document of "Operational Rules on Health Work in Educational Institutions" was issued at the same time by the State Council, which says "the major elements of health work in educational institutions are£º to monitor students' health£» to open healthcare course for students and help them cultivate better habits of sanitation£»to improve school sanitation environment and better sanitation conditions for teaching£» to strengthen prevention and treatment of contagious and common disease among students."

Priority is given to the built-up of rules and regulation and to scientific management of PE in China. Ministry of Education of the Central Government has set up within its organizational structure the Department of Physical, Health and Art Education. Education administration of all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and those within the governments of above the county level have respectively a division, section or unit of physical and health education, or deploy certain officials. All these setups and officials shoulder the responsibility of physical and health education in educational institutions at national or regional levels. PE in China has entered into a stage of being guided by laws. In line with the relevant guidelines, laws and regulations, the education administrative departments of the country execute effective management and monitoring over the work. The laws and regulations already issued include others, such as "Operational Rules on PE in Educational Institutions", "Operational Rules on Health Education in Educational Institutions", "National Standards for PE Qualification of Students", "Standards for Provision of PE Playgrounds and Equipment in Educational Institutions", and PE Curricula Standards, Syllabus and Management of Students Athletes and Players.

In addition to possible provision of essentials in terms of funds and equipment, PE administration pays special attention to construction of teachers' contingent. Professional qualification certificate is introduced for PE teachers£» that is, PE teachers in senior secondary schools, junior secondary schools and primary schools must have acquired, accordingly, education background of completing university four-year undergraduate programs, college three-year programs and two-year programs in secondary teacher's training schools. There are in total over 20 PE institutions of higher learning, PE discipline in over 60 other institutions of higher learning, PE programs in over 200 secondary teacher training schools. Besides, PE syllabus of secondary teacher training schools says that PE in these schools has a "two-fold task". In addition to PE of students themselves, the schools should also carry out professional training for students so that they could be PE teachers in primary schools after graduation. Up to now, there has formed a contingent of close to 300,000 PE teachers in the whole country, who love their profession and are demonstrating the spirit of devotion.


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