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Chapter V Teachers and Other Educational Workers of Higher Education Institutions
2005-01-27

Article 45 Teachers and other educational workers of higher education institutions shall enjoy the rights prescribed by law, fulfill the obligations prescribed by law, and devote themselves to the cause of the peoples education.

Article 46 A qualification system shall be instituted among teachers in higher education institutions. Chinese citizens, who abide by the Constitution and laws, love education as a cause, have sound ideology and moral character, have completed undergraduate or graduate programs, have the necessary competence in education and teaching, and are considered qualified, may serve as teachers in higher education institutions. Citizens, who have not completed undergraduate or graduate programs but have acquired a speciality through study, have passed national examinations for qualifications of teachers, and are considered qualified, may likewise serve as teachers in such institutions.

Article 47 A system of professional titles shall be instituted among teachers in higher education institutions. The number of such titles in higher education institutions shall be determined on the basis of the need of teaching, research and other tasks which are shouldered by the institutions. The professional titles of teachers include teaching assistant, lecturer, associate professor and professor.

To acquire any of the professional titles prescribed in the preceding paragraph, a teacher in a higher education institution shall meet the following basic requirements:

(1) to be qualified as a teacher in a higher education institution;

(2) to have a systematic mastery of the basic theories of his branch of learning;

(3) to have the necessary competence in education, teaching and research as required by the title he is to hold; and

(4) to shoulder the curriculum commensurate with the title and the teaching assignments in required class hours.

Professors and associate professors, in addition to the basic requirements as mentioned above, shall possess systematic and sound basic theories of their branches of learning, have comparatively rich experience in teaching and research, have achieved remarkable successes in teaching, and have composed comparatively high level of thesis or works or achieved outstanding results in teaching and research.

The specific requirements for professional titles in higher education institutions shall be formulated by the State Council.

Article 48 A system of appointment shall be instituted among teachers in higher education institutions. A person, having been evaluated as being qualified for holding a teaching post, shall be appointed by a higher education institution according to the duties, requirements and tenure of office for the post. Appointment of teachers of higher education institutions shall be based on the principle of equality and voluntariness on both sides, and contracts of appointment shall be signed by presidents of higher education institutions and the teachers appointed.

Article 49 A system of educational administrators shall be instituted among administrative and managerial personnel in higher education institutions. A system of appointment for professional workers and technicians shall be instituted for auxiliary teaching staff and other professional workers and technicians in higher education institutions.

Article 50 The State protects the lawful rights and interests of teachers and other educational workers of higher education institutions and takes measures to improve their working and living conditions.

Article 51 Higher education institutions shall create conditions and provide convenience for teachers to undergo training, conduct research and take part in academic exchange.

Higher education institutions shall assess the ideology, political performance, professional ethics, professional skill and actual achievements of teachers, administrative and managerial personnel, auxiliary teaching staff and other professional workers and technicians, and the results of the assessment shall serve as the basis for appointment, dismissal, promotion, reward and punishment.

Article 52 Teachers, administrative and managerial personnel, auxiliary teaching staff and other professional workers and technicians in higher education institutions shall do their own work well, concentrating on teaching and training students.

National People's Congress


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